Everyone knows the word "culture" and can generally understand the basic meaning of the word "culture", but what is culture? What is the definition of culture? There are not many people who can answer it or answer it completely. I don’t blame you, and no one has to blame themselves. Because, although human civilization has lasted for 5,000 years, up to now, due to the lack of real understanding of the extension of culture and the infiltration of different historical views, the concept of "culture" has not been universally accepted by everyone. Let me briefly list it below. Do you agree with that one, or try to give it to "?
First, the definition of "culture" According to statistics, since the history of civilization, there have been countless definitions of "culture". According to the statistics of "An Introduction to Cross-cultural Communication", since 1871, there have been more than 300 definitions of "culture" in the world, too many, and some of them are not in line with our traditional culture and values, so we omit some and choose to list them as follows.
1. The word "culture" comes back. The word "culture" in China first appeared in the Book of Changes: civilization stops, and humanity is also. Look at the humanities and turn it into the world. Here, "Wen" and "Hua" have not yet been linked together, but the meaning is already there. The main meaning of "cultural success" is "civilized education". What connects the words "Wen" and "Hua" is Liu Xiang’s "Shuo Yuan" in the Han Dynasty: where martial arts flourish, they refuse to accept it, their culture does not change, and then they are punished. Liu Xiang’s word "culture" means "Wen Zhi" as opposed to "Wu Zhi". It can be seen vertically that the words "culture" used above mainly refer to the contents of "morality" and "rule by virtue", and are not the concept of "culture" in a complete sense.
2. Marx’s definition of "culture" "Culture" is the sum total of the lifestyle of a country or a nation. It is believed that people’s lifestyle is "culture", and what kind of lifestyle is there, such as China culture and American culture.
3, Xu Jialu in the article "On National Cultural Security" elaborated"Culture" can be summarized into three parts: one is to deal with the relationship between people; The second is to deal with the relationship between man and nature; The third is to deal with the relationship between reality and the future. Furthermore, it is believed that these three articles are the core content of human culture and the most fundamental problem of culture.
Note:Xu Jialu served as Vice Chairman of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC), Chairman of the Central Committee of the Democratic Progressive Party, Director state language commission and Special Adviser of the Maritime Silk Road Association.
4, philosophy and sociology subject understanding:"Culture" is a process, a state and a realm of human development, and the integration of process, state and realm is the true meaning of culture.
5. Most people in the field of science and culture believe that"Culture" is a relatively stable, independent and complete sum of social norms that human beings maintain the survival and development of various social groups.
6. Anthropological groups believe thatEverything between a group that is different from other groups except genetic genes is called "culture". Here, they regard culture as a variable of economic development, which is prone to the problem of cultural autocracy or chauvinism.
7, empiricists believe thatCulture is produced in the common life and work activities of human beings, and it is the core of mutual recognition within the nation.
Second, the characteristics or characteristics of "culture" There are many characteristics of "culture", but there are three main ones.
1. Culture is a derivative of human evolution.Natural existence is not culture, only what is processed or produced by human beings intentionally or unintentionally is culture. The commonness of human beings is not culture but human nature, and the characteristics of individuals are not culture, but personality. What is inherited is not culture, but instinct. Culture is a social product created by human beings and accepted or followed by members of society. What is privately owned by individuals and not understood and accepted by other members of society cannot be called culture. For example, attraction between men and women is not called culture, but marriage in love is culture, because it is natural instinct for men and women to like each other, while marriage in love is acquired.
2. "Culture" has the characteristics of applicability.. Once "culture" is formed, it has adaptive characteristics. Under certain conditions, people must adapt to it, otherwise it will be eliminated or marginalized, that is, "anomie". Of course, if you are strong enough, you can also try to change the "culture". Usually, this is what revolutionaries and reformers do. This leads to the problem of "culture" inclusiveness. Generally speaking, a strong culture is less inclusive, while a weak culture shows a higher tolerance or tolerance. Cultural inclusiveness is positively related to social openness and cultural civilization.
3. "Culture" is hierarchical. It is roughly divided into three layers. The first layer is the surface layer, which is mainly expressed through human’s basic necessities. For example, eating without snapping your mouth, walking with your head held high, etc. are all manifestations of "culture" The second layer is the middle layer, such as art, customs, rules, law, religion, etc. Their common feature is to express their thoughts or will with the help of materials. The third layer is the bottom layer, which is what we usually call the bottom logic. This bottom logic refers to the outlook on life, values, ethics and aesthetics. These "four views" reflect the relationship between people, people and nature, reality and future, which constitute the soul of a nation.
The three layers of "culture" are not insulated and often interact and link, but it is relatively easy to change food, clothing, housing and transportation, and it is relatively difficult to change the underlying culture.
Third, the value or use of "culture" The value of "culture" to life is multi-angle and multi-faceted, and it is impossible to exhaust it. Here, we only choose the role of "culture" in explaining the most valuable life dilemma, and it is useless to talk a little.
1, a culture can "reveal" their own life difficulties, and criticize or vent.. Qu Yuan’s "asking for heaven" belongs to this category. For another example, poor and ugly people, when buying goods or receiving services, often dare not question the quality of goods or services, and are used to finding reasons from themselves. For example, an ugly woman’s hair is broken, and she dare not blame the stylist, but blame herself for being ugly.
2. Give value to the dilemma.For example, Mencius, the sage of Asia, said: Therefore, people are going to be demoted, so they must first suffer from their minds, work hard on their bones and muscles, starve their bodies and skin, and be empty of their bodies, so they can’t be patient. Another example is the saying that difficulties are tempered. Another example is that the young people’s death to save the elderly is negative from the biological point of view, but if it is explained by "culture", it belongs to a positive and worth promoting behavior.
Expounding the above reason, I mainly want to explain that, with or without knowledge, one can understand or learn the above thinking or thinking mode, even if he is "literate", otherwise, no matter how much he recites, he can’t be said to be a "literate person", and using the calligraphy of the phonograph world is called the study of asking questions.
Fourth, what is "literate" According to the above concepts and analysis, although "culture" is the externalization of knowledge, the cultural connotation of externalized knowledge is far from this. Therefore, having knowledge does not mean having culture, so how can it be regarded as "having culture"?
1. Only knowledge can lead to culture.Knowledge is the shell and expression of culture. Without knowledge, it is not only difficult to form a scientific way of thinking, but also difficult to express and communicate effectively. To reiterate, knowledge refers not only to book knowledge, but also to life experiences, experiences and civilized achievements that have been sublimated into culture, such as life knowledge, labor skills and people’s common habits.
2, can use knowledge and use knowledge to build values recognized by the orthodox system, is a culture.Culture is essentially a quality, and a qualified person has the ability to explain the value world and transcend the survival difficulties. In short, a person with culture and quality not only has the ability to create the value world, but also can let himself and others transcend the survival difficulties in the future.
Description: 1,Culture is the main symbol of human evolution from animals. Animals have no culture, only humans have culture. 2. The word "value" has the same meaning as the word "meaning", but the difference is that "value" is a foreign word, while "meaning" is a local word and a traditional term.